US Immigration
-3 main eras of immigration
-1st was the colonies (90%English, Germans, and Africans) -surge during the 1840s and 50s (Germans the highest)
-2nd was was from 1850 to the early 1900s (Western to Eastern (first Germans and Scandanavians) and Souther Europeans 1890s to early 1900s South and East Europe)
At peak, 14% of US Population was foreign-born
-3rd began in the 1970s and continues today (Hispanics and Asians)
-immigration dropped because of the quota laws and the Depression and WWII
but picked up again during the time after and surged during the 1970s
-in 2006, Mexico passd germany as the country that hs sent the US the most
immigrants (1986 immigration and Reform act)
-next largest sources Dominican Rep., El Salvador (from Latin Am.)
-Asia was the largest source of immigrants during the 70s uand early 80s
-China, Philippines, India, and Vietnam

Quota Laws
-Immigration acts of 1965 and 68 eliminated quotas but set up hemisphere quotas and
then in 1978, countries were limited to 20,000 per country with a total of 290,000 for the
-Currently, 620,000 global limit with only 7% from any given country but there are
-refugees are admitted if deemed to be genuine
-preference is given for family members but the ydo count as part of the quotas
-there are some exceptions for highly skilled workers

Brain Drain
-World Bank found these countries have a large percentage of their college grads living
abroad 85% Haiti, 47% Ghana, 45% Mozambique, 30% (all of these Uganda, Angola,
Somalia, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Kenya

Internal Migration of the United States

What Is Internal Migration?
The terms internal and international migration gets easily confused. International migration is the permanent movement from one country to another. Internal migration is the movement within the same country permanently. There are always more internal migrants compared to international migrants. Internal migration is considered to be more convenient because unlike international migration, even though people move, they can still find familiar food, language, culture, and social customs after they move. Internal migration involves short distanced migration. Russia and the U.S. however would be an exception since they are both large countries, making long distanced migration a possibility.

Interregional and Intraregional Migration

Internal migration can be divided into interregional migration and intraregional migration.

* Interregional migration is the movement from a country’s region to another region.
* Intraregional migration is the movement within only one region.

Both these types of migrations usually tend to occur due to desired improvements in life after disastrous environmental and political conflicts, better economic conditions, or changes in lifestyles. Interregional and intraregional migrations are both voluntary opposed to forced migration and the migration transition.

The Western Frontier, Seventeenth Century to Nineteenth Century

From the times of the earliest European settlements to 1890, when the U.S. Census Bureau declared the frontier closed, a western-moving edge of newly available land triggered waves of migratory European-descended Americans in pursuit.

The people who participated in these successive migrations usually traveled in groups linked by kinship, business interests, or geographic proximity in their former communities. Most were motivated by opportunities for economic gain, while a minority, such as the Shakers and the Mormons, sought to live out their religious and social ideals in isolated communities of their own devising. Though they set out with widely varying assets, most came from the middle ranges of the economic spectrum. The most prosperous members of the populace "back home" would have had little reason to leave their comfortable circumstances, and the poorest members would not have had the means to purchase the supplies and equipment for the journey. At the same time European Americans were moving in, Indians migrated out. From pre–Revolutionary War (1775–1783) days, when "the west" lay just beyond the eastern seaboard, to the settlement of the Great Plains in the 1870s, European Americans first had to contend with the removal of Indians from their ancestral lands. Indians were considered little more than dangerous obstacles in the path of progress, and the story of their forced migrations is a shameful one.

Generally, settlers moved west from adjacent areas in the East. The fledgling U.S. government had offered veterans of the Revolutionary War land west of the Alleghenies in lieu of wages. With the resolution of the original states' conflicting land claims and the organization of the Northwest Territory in 1787, settlers poured into the Ohio River valley. Southerners chose lands closer to the Ohio River, while New Englanders headed almost due west for the northern sections of Ohio and, later, Indiana and Illinois. Many were farmers fleeing overworked soil and high land prices at home; plantation-style agriculture also encroached on small land holders in the South, urging them north. At this time, the first settlers in an area were often squatters, who cleared some land, put up a simple shelter, and then sold it as "improved" to someone else often a wealthy land speculator before moving on to the next wilderness edge, where they would repeat the process.

Though the routes they took (the Wilderness Road and Zane's Trace, for example) into the Ohio country were called roads, they were little more than rough trails, prohibiting overland transport in anything other than small carts. As the decades from 1800 progressed, roads improved, but any part of the journey in which water-borne transport was unavailable must have been one of considerable hardship. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) incorporated French settlements along the Mississippi and Missouri watersheds into the United States at this time.

Transportation improvements made migration easier when an all-water route opened up from the East Coast to the Great Lakes states. The Erie Canal opened in 1825, making it possible to float from the Hudson River to Buffalo in western New York. From there, ships carried passengers on to Detroit.

Waves of non-English-speaking newcomers from Europe joined the national migration and, by 1850, the United States had been settled all the way to the Mississippi. Germans were the most plentiful; many established enclaves in burgeoning cities such as Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis, while others came with large extended families, even villages, to settle the rural Midwest. By midcentury, railroads had supplanted canals and the "frontier" lay along the Pacific coast, while the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains were still hostile territory inhabited by Indians. Though a mass overland migration (the Oregon Trail) to Oregon's Willamette Valley began in 1843, European Americans had already sailed around the tip of South America to settle in the Spanish-dominated area that now comprises California. Gold lured men to the Southwest, too, on the first of many gold rushes beginning in 1848. Irish and Chinese immigrants made a pool of potential laborers for the hard, dangerous, low-paying jobs on the new railroads surging west. The coming of the railroad (the Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869) established a pattern that would be repeated, not just across the prairies of the Great Plains, but in cities as well. Typically, a company would obtain large quantities of land at reasonable rates for the railroad right-of-way. The railroad would then sell the surplus land at a higher price, while enticing farmers to settle along these ready-made routes to markets back east.

Interregional Migration and the Great Migration
Your browser may not support display of this image. Interregional migration is an example of rural to urban migration. An example of interregional migration would be The Great Migration. The Great Migration occurred in the U.S was the mass movement of 1.4 million African Americans that moved out of Southern states and migrated to Northern, and Midwest states in order to leave racism behind and seek job opportunities. The first Great Migration occurred in the years 1910 to 1940. The second Great Migration occurred between the years 1940-1970. This is an example of interregional migration because during the Great Migration, African Americans moved from one region of the U.S to another region on order to seek job opportunities and leaving racism behind. Since the 1920’s, the African American population has changed from being almost entirely rural, to more the 90% urban.

Migration to the Cities
While some nineteenth century Americans sought the wide open spaces of the frontier, others migrated to the growing urban centers. In America's largest eighteenth century cities Charleston, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston as in Europe, the most desirable place to live was the center of the city. Whatever amenities, such as sewers, a city had to offer were most likely to be centrally located, and most people walked to work. Nasty trades such as slaughterhouses and tanneries located on the fringes, as did the workers who toiled there. The elite lived in large townhouses in proximity to less affluent tradesmen and artisans. However, the majority of people lived in rural areas; in 1790 only 5.1 percent of the population lived in cities.

The industrial revolution reversed that trend. New jobs in industries spawned by steam power brought migrants into the cities from played-out farms and accommodated the flood of foreign immigrants too poor to travel far from their port of arrival. By 1890, one-third of all Americans lived in cities, but two-thirds of all immigrants did. African Americans, too, poured into northern cities from the rural South. In the years since 1920, the black population has changed from being almost entirely rural to more than 90 percent urban.

From Urban to Suburban
The same technological advances that built the great cities also created an escape route. By the 1870s cities offered street lighting, municipal water, and police and fire services, but many white Protestants increasingly viewed cities as centers of crime, immorality, and disease as non-English-speaking immigrants crowded into dangerously run-down housing, and factories spread noise and pollution.

Property outside the central city became more attractive as transportation to and from work became more reliable. At midcentury a few suburbs, such as Lewellyn Park, New Jersey, and Riverside, Illinois, designed specifically for rich businessmen and their families, appeared outside New York, Chicago, and other major cities. These imitated the Romantic ideal of an uncorrupted retreat in the country with winding, irregular roads and large lots that followed the contours of the land.

In the years following the Civil War (1861–1865), commuter railroads were built across the nation, allowing workers to live miles away from their jobs in the central cities. Philadelphia's "Main Line" suburbs such as Swarthmore, Villanova, Radnor, and Stratford date from this era. In the 1860s and 1870s the Pennsylvania Railroad decided it would be easier to improve its line to Pittsburgh by purchasing outright the farms in its way. Like the rail companies out west, the railroad kept the rights-of-way and sold the rest of the land to developers, who found ready customers for private homes located with in walking distance of the new commuter lines. At first, only the affluent could afford the daily round-trip fares, but soon satellite neighborhoods and even whole suburbs sprang up to accommodate the low-wage labor pool that served richer suburbanites.

Suburbanization accelerated in the twentieth century, propelled by the advances of the trolley system and later the automobile. Some of the migration to the suburbs resulted from racial and cultural insecurities; "white flight," the exodus of white families from cities in the wake of school desegregation, began in the mid-1950s. As of 2002, many suburbanites no longer commuted into the city at all, as corporate headquarters have followed them beyond the city's edge. In 1950, 23 percent of the population lived in suburbs; in 1998, 50 percent lived there.

The suburban ideal owning a private dwelling and surrounding land taps into a long standing American idea that land ownership means wealth. Whether they came as victims of the Scottish land clearances of the eighteenth century or as refugees from the turmoil of central Europe in the twentieth, few European American immigrants owned land in their homelands. For three centuries Americans have migrated to the locations where that ideal could become a reality. Home ownership still equals security in American culture.

Counter-urbanization, (all close together within the same area) is an example of intraregional migration. An example of intraregional migration would be the suburbanization that occurred after World War II ended. Race played a role in suburbanization. After the Great Migration to Northern cities occurred, cities became viewed as being a dangerous, violent, and crime infested place to live. This caused suburbs to be seen as safe places that were fit to raise a family without worrying about violence. This was a trend called “white flight” which was the movement of white families that occurred in parts of the U.S. around the 1950’s. Another factor that contributed to counter-urbanization, which led to intraregional migration would be the suburban ideal. The suburban ideal was a long standing American idea that land ownership meant wealth, and that home ownership was equivalent to security in American culture. This is an example of intraregional migration because the movement of people occurred within the same region. In the 1950’s, about 23% of the population live in suburbs. In 1998, the percent increased to be up to 50%.

Sun Belt Migration
Since 1960 Americans have migrated south and west to the band of states known as the Sun Belt, following jobs, a warmer climate, and sometimes a lower cost of living. Hundreds of thousands of retirees have settled there as well. Florida has always had a large retired population, but from 1990 to 1998, Nevada's over-65 population jumped 55 percent, while Arizona's gained 29 percent, Utah's grew by 22 percent, and the elderly in Colorado and New Mexico increased by 21 percent.

Internal migration rates in the U.S. today are usually high amongst young people. Many college students in the U.S. migrate internally when going to college. Job opportunities created in major cities in the U.S. are another example of internal migration. Since the 1960’s, Americans have migrated to south and western states, known as the Sun Belt states. Sun Belt migration still occurs today and is known to still attract people for its various job opportunities, lower cost of living, and warmer climate. Population in these states in the past years. Florida for example has had an increased population of retired people since 1990. The Sun Belt Migration has caused people to leave the Rust Belt states, along with the Great Plains region. This has caused the U.S to experience rural depopulation over the past decades, which can negatively impact the rural communities of the U.S.

United States and Internal Migration
The 2000 United States Census Bureau published a special report on domestic worker migration, with a focus on the movement of young, single, college-educated migrants. The data shows a trend of such people moving away from the Rust Belt and northern Great Plains region towards the West Coast and Southeast. The area with the largest net influx of young, single, college-educated persons was the San Francisco Bay Area.

The country as a whole does not experience a large-scale brain drain to other countries, since it is often the destination of skilled workers migrating from elsewhere in the world. However, the U.S. (like other countries) have been experiencing widespread rural depopulation in the past few decades which has seen many rural workers with high skills move to urban/suburban areas - this has negatively impacted rural communities in the U.S.