Global Trends
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) said there are more than 300 million migrants around the world today. Europe hosted the largest number of immigrants, with 70.6 million people in 2005, the latest year for which figures are available. North America, with over 45.1 million immigrants, is second, followed by Asia, which hosts nearly 25.3 million. Most of today's migrant workers come from Asia.

Note: those are global trends.
-most migrants to America are Hispanic
-America is the single largest country destination


The United Nations found that, in 2005, there were nearly 191 million international migrants worldwide, 3 percent of the world population. This represented a rise of 26 million since 1990. Sixty percent of these immigrants were now in developed countries, an increase on 1990. Those in less developed countries stagnated, mainly because of a fall in refugees. Contrast that to the average rate of globalization (the proportion of cross-border trade in all trade), which exceeds 20 percent. The numbers of people living outside their country of birth is expected to rise in the future.

Possible Effects of Migration for the Source Countries
These are the countries sending people to other countries

-Remittances: countries may gain money in the form of remittances. This is people sending money home.



-Brain DrainHuman? capital flight (or 'brain drain') is the large-scale emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge; it is normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity, political instability, or health risks. Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the government. It is a parallel of capital flight, which refers to the same movement of financial capital. Brain drain is often associated with deskilling of emigrants in their country of destination while their country of emigration experiences the draining of skilled individuals.



-These countries also suffer a small loss of the their working age population as migrants tend to be in their 20s and 30s more than other age groups

-In terms of rural to urban migration, Africa has an issue with males migrating to the cities leaving women in the rural area to farm. This creates gendered spaces.

-one could argue that this takes pressure off of countries that are in stage 2 or 3 as they send people away to other countries. This would alleviate problems caused by high population growth.



Possible Effects of Migration for the Destination Countries
These are the countries receiving people from other countries

-strain on resources and the ability to provide for large groups of migrants coming in who do not have much income (meaning providing schools, hospitals, etc)

-possibility of a culture clash and segregation(Muslims in France)

-Cheap labor for the country taking in immigrants

-an increase in the country's NIR (growth) helping to keep its population stable (for stage 4 countries that have problems with decline and dependency ratio issues)



Refugees are different
Africa and the Middle East have the highest number of refugees
-Refugees flee to the nearest country. They are not migrating to MDCs in search of jobs so they may end up in LDCs putting more of a strain on a country without much resources.

-Refugees can cause a clash of cultures (meaning their culture conflicts with that of the destination country) and if they fled a war, they could bring that cultural conflict to the country they are entering.

-The UN helps out quite often with refugees by setting up camps and allocating resources to care for the people possibly making things easier for the destination countries.