History of Cities

First agriculture revolution - first urban revolution
-bodies of water, coastal areas for city locations
-fastest/easiest way of travel= water
-or were near good farmland / maybe trade area
-farms would be local / Von Thunen applies better? (but not in all areas) - main thing is that just about everything is local
-100,000 - 200,000 big city
-countries are mostly rural population
-disease / lack of infrastructure / lack of public health
-environment could have a big effect on them
-In a country, most people are farmers
-Worldwide urban percentage: 1800 3% percent lived in cities, 1900 14 percent, 1950 30 percent, 2008 majority urban
-pre1700s we are not seeing a mass migration to the cities

Second Agri Rev - Second Urban Revolution (Industrial Rev)
-second sector jobs
-stage 2 country
-all the seconds and firsts go together
-mass migration to cities (mainly if not exclusively core countries)
-Many European cities ended up locating in areas with coal (at this time)
-Factory Jobs -agglomeration would raise population
-much larger population (1-10 million)
-pollution / need to build up infrastructure /disease (Cholera) / overcrowding
-trains (time zones), manufacturing
-first urban societies (first majority urban countries - England)
-Core MDCs became majority urban societies first
-rural to urban movement (England - enclosure)
-von thunen writes his ideas down in 1829

Periphery cities at this time - Colonial Cities
-coastal for exports
-(1800s) export raw materials to core
-uneven development (worldwide basis) promoted by imperialism and creates monoecomies
-infrastructure dedicated towards coastal movement
-uneven development - primate city (much larger than any other city around- more than double) -services
-European style architecture

Late 1800s to E1900s America
-beginning of skyscrapers -increases land value in CBD
-models (von thunen e1800s, multiple nuclei 1940s, concentric zone1920s, sector 1930s)
-industrial
-pedestrian city
-density gradient (no suburbs)
-centralized ( more likely)
-auto early in development
-cities that were growing and develping (maufacturing belt, megalopolis)


Rank-size:
The second city is always 1/2 of the first and the third is 1/3rd and so on down the line (always based off of the first city).
-after the first few, cities become increasingly close in size as lined up by rank (think 1/20th is close to 1/21st)
-usually a sign of an MDC with a more even development throughout the country because you have many cities of similar size spread throughout a country
-NYC, LA, Chicago, (group that is roughly equal Boston, San Fransisco, Seattle), (next group)
-Brazil: uneven development occurs in the cities -85 percent urban and does follow rank-size but has large shantytowns. The uneven development is within the cities


Post WWII - United States
-economic recovery
-counter-urbanization (suburbs)
-immigration is at a low (1950s to e1970s)
-white flight reaction to great migration
-urban discrimination
-baby boom - people having families
-people want space, single family homes (detached) for low cost
-reaction to the city
CITY=poverty (poor factory workers/immigrants), factories, pollution, crowding of space, noise and congestion and constant activity, crime
SUBURBS=cul-de-sac community, push traffic to certain streets and keep residential areas quiet, single-zone areas, safer, zoning for similar house size and type = all people the same, less light at night, no alleys, more open space, less services or services close earlier, cleaner, car-oriented, often not pedestrian friendly, yard, gated community)
-America will become post-industrial (1970s - )
-manufacturing belt becomes the rust belt so cities must change
-direction of movement was traditionally west but will become (1960s forward) west and south (sunbelt)
-post-industrial city / country (3rd sector) (especially 1970s forward)
-density gradient




Percent urban in Modern World-
LDC Latin American countries (80% urban) which is atypical of LDCs. Most LDCs are typically 40% urban.
MDC 75% are usually this or higher.