Formation of the Language
Background
The English language originated in the British Isles when Celtic tribes migrated to the area. Before the Celts, not much is known about the people that lived there or the language that they spoke. When the Celts arrived around 2000 B.C., however, they brought their languages with them, which is how English first originated.

The German Invasion
Around 450 A.D., Germanic tribes from Denmark (the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons) invaded, pushing the Celts into northern parts of Britain, like Scotland and Wales. The name England comes from Angles (or Engles) Land. The Anglo-Saxons? had come from a corner (or angle) of northern Germany, southern Denmark. English comes from the language that the Anglo-Saxons? spoke, almost 1,500 years ago. Also, Vikings invaded areas of England, and some of their language merged with the English of that time.

The Norman Invasion
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, which kept English from becoming German. The Normans spoke French, and for the next 300 years, royalty in England spoke French. However, the majority of the people still spoke the English of that time to each and, over time, some French became mixed in with the English. When England and France were at war, most people in England wanted to stop speaking French. However, French was kept as a business language for a time and continued to integrate with English.

Modern English
English today is a combination of Germanic and Romantic roots from the Anglo-Saxons? and the French. It continues to change today as more countries are speaking it and it has many dialects.

In England today, they recognize one dialect as the standard language- the dialect well established as the most acceptable for business, government, education, etc. The style used within London is now considered the British Received Pronunication or the standard language for England.

England and America still have differences in dialects within their own countries (think southeast America and the southern accent) but mass media (radio, t.v. and the internet) and internal migration have helped to remove many of the differences in dialects. A small example of how dialects still exist would be our pop versus soda assignment.


Diffusion
English spread by expansion diffusion when the British began setting up colonies around the world. English is either the official language or else one of the official languages in former British colonies. Today, English is official in 50 countries, which is almost one third of the entire world population. Not only did the English conquer but they also moved to other countries around the globe.

English came to the United States in the 1600s when settlers from Britain first arrived. Now, the United States is responsible for spreading English around the world. Globalization is one of the main ways in which English diffuses. Many countries are using English to communicate on a global level. English diffuses easily because of the way vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation can be changed. Also, many English words fuse with words in other languages, creating new words that bridge the gap between English and other languages. Spanglish and Franglais are English words that have come into the Spanish and French languages.

Modern Diffusion of the English Language
America is a dominant power in the world's economy making it a lingua franca for many doing international business. American music and movies are very important in popular culture and causes the language to diffuse widely and be popular widely.
-more than 90 percent of European students take English classes
-Japan considers it so important for business they have considered adopting it as a second official language
-many European colleges teach in English so the students can compete in a global economy / global
-English has been an important part of the internet (since the net was created in America along with the programming code for it). The original characters for language on computers and the net were based off of English. English language started off at 71 percent of the net in 1998 but was at 29 percent in 2008. This decline reflects more users in more countries on the internet but English still dominates as many of the most important internet companies are based in America. US companies provide the main search engines, for example.


wiki article on English on the internet (external link)



Statistics Today
English is spoken by about half a billion people today. Two billion people (a third of the world’s population) live in a country where English is spoken even if they themselves cannot speak it. English is mostly spoken by people who have learned it as a second language. However, in the United States, English is the only language most people are able to speak. Only about 30 to 50% of people graduate high school with at least two years of a foreign language. In contrast with Europe, 62% of people learn to speak three foreign languages. In England, an English speaking country, most people learn French as a second language.

Demographics
Countries with the most (by the numbers) English speakers

1. United States
2. India
3. Nigeria
4. United Kingdom
5. Philippines
6. Canada
7. Australia

Mixing of English into foreign languages
Spanglish Spanglish refers to the code-switching of English and Spanish, in the speech of people who speak parts of two languages, or whose normal language is different from that of the country where they live. For example, the Hispanic population of the United States and the British population in Argentina use varieties of Spanglish. Sometimes the creole spoken in Spanish holiday resorts which are exposed to both Spanish and English is called Spanglish. The similar code switching used in Gibraltar is called Llanito. Spanglish may also be known by a regional name, e.g. "Tex-Mex" in Texas, (cf. "Tex-Mex cuisine").

Spanglish is not a pidgin language. It is totally informal; there are no hard-and-fast rules.

There is no clear demarcation between Spanglish and simple bad Spanish or English. "Parquear" for "to park" is clear deliberate Spanglish; "actualmente" for "actually" rather than "at present" is closer to erroneous use of a false friend, and ambiguous as it has a clear, but different, meaning in true Spanish.

FranglaisIn French, franglais refers to the use of English words for which there are no French equivalents; the most notorious of these anglicisms (which are sometimes regarded as unwelcome imports or as bad slang) is le weekend. The term also refers to nouns created from Anglo-Saxon? roots, often by adding "-ing" at the end of a popular word—e.g. un parking (a car park or parking lot), un camping (a campground), or shampooing. A few words that have entered use in French are derived from English roots but are not found at all in English, such as un relooking (a makeover) and un déstockage (a clearance sale). Others are based either on mistaken ideas of English words (e.g. footing meaning jogging, not a pediment), grammar (e.g. un pin's (with the apostrophe in both singular and plural) meaning a collectable lapel pin) or word order (e.g. talkie-walkie meaning a walkie-talkie, a hand-held two-way radio). For those who do not speak English, such words may be believed to exist in English. (Note however that in Quebec, where both English and French are spoken, expressions such as "footing" and "relooking" are not used.)

Owing to the worldwide popularity of the internet, relatively new English words have been introduced into French (e.g. e-mail and mail, referring to either e-mail or an e-mail address). The Quebec government has proposed the use of an alternative word for "e-mail" which is derived from French roots, "courriel" (from "courrier électronique") and this term is now widely used. The Académie française has also suggested the use of the abbreviation "mél." as an analogy with the abbreviation "tél." for telephone. Another example from Canadian French is the word look. The verb "to look" in French is regarder but the noun "a look" (i.e. the way that something looks) is look, so the sentence "This Pepsi can has a new look" in Canadian French would be "Cette cannette de Pepsi a un nouveau look".

In France and Quebec, they try to protect their version of the languages. France has the French Academy which oversees the language and Quebec, at one time, outlawed all words from the streetscape that were not French.

Denglish describes an influx of English, or pseudo-English, vocabulary into the German language through travel and English's widespread usage in advertising, business and information technology. These phrasings may have originated from English-language movies and other media translated into German, but they are also used in everyday language. Some of those constructs will only be found in youth language, where it has become common, for example, to talk about coole Events which captures almost, but not quite, the same meaning as the respective English phrase.




Culture and Lingua Franca
Most countries that speak English are former colonies of Britain or the United States. Most recently, the United States is responsible for spreading English. English is considered “the language of the world” because, as globalization continues, more countries feel the need to learn English in order to take part in business. English is spoken mainly in business and communication all over the world and has become a lingua franca. Two countries that do not share a similar language are able to communicate with each other by speaking English. The United States has spread English mainly through trade and communication. English is also considered to be a part of “pop culture” since most modern technology and media is in English.


Map of how English has diffused



English as an Official Language Map (note: some countries have more than one official language)