Note that the fuels of Wood and Biofuels like oil are not really environmentally sound and that oil is not truly renewable (unless from plants - but plants are not really feasible either)

Earth receives energy from several sources; most comes from the sun. We can harvest the sun’s radiation directly.

Energy sources such as sunlight, geothermal energy, and tidal energy are considered perpetually renewable because their supplies will not be depleted by our use of them.
Some sources, such as timber, are renewable if we do not harvest them at too great a rate.
Energy sources such as oil, coal, and natural gas are considered nonrenewable, because at our current rates of consumption we will use up Earth’s accessible store of them in a matter of decades to centuries.

Because energy sources depend on location, distribution is uneven. Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of oil, while U.S. remains to be the largest consumers. Developed nations consume more energy than developing nations as well.

Fossil fuels and Oil
The fuels we burn today in our cars and electric power plants were formed from the tissues of organisms that lived 100–500 million years ago. The sludgelike liquid we know is crude oil, or petroleum. Technology sets a limit on the maximum that can be extracted, whereas economics determines how much will actually be extracted. The amount that is both technologically and economically feasible to extract under current conditions is termed the proven recoverable reserve.

Coal and Biomass
Coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel. Coal is organic matter compressed under very high pressure to form dense, solid carbon structures. They are burned. These are widely used in LDCs as energy sources.

Natural Gas
Natural gas is a much cleaner-burning fuel than coal or oil, produces less pollution, and is the fastest-growing fossil fuel in use today. Natural gas consists primarily of methane, and typically includes varying amounts of other volatile hydrocarbons. Extraction underground is necessary for natural gas.

Downsides to energy consumption
1. Their net energy yields are low and they are expensive to produce.
2. They have significant environmental impact.
3. Their collective use would emit as much carbon dioxide, methane, and other air pollutants as other fossil fuels do now
Widely used energy sources are finite. Depletion is at its highest as world population grows. Productions for energy sources, like oil, is soon to peak in production.

Environmental Impacts
a. Fossil fuel emissions cause pollution and drive climate change; has been inferred to warm our planet and drive changes in global climate.
b. Fossil fuels release more than carbon dioxide when they burn, and air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels can have serious consequences for human health and the environment.
c. Surface strip mining can destroy large swaths of habitat and cause extensive soil erosion.
d. The extensive infrastructure necessary to support a full-scale drilling operation includes housing for workers, access roads, pipelines, and waste piles.

Depletion and Renewable Resources
1. Until we are using solely renewable energy sources, we will face the gradual depletion of nonrenewable fossil fuel resources and will need to practice energy conservation—reducing energy use to extend the lifetimes of our nonrenewable energy supplies.
2. The only way to assure ourselves long-term energy supplies is to rapidly develop renewable energy sources.
These sources include:
1.Hydropower: Uses running water and dams to turn turbines which produces electricity
2.Solar: Uses solar panel technology to produce electricity
3.Wind: Uses wind to turn windmills that produce energy
4.Geothermal: Uses heat from underground to produce energy.
5.Nuclear Fusion: Uses solar energy as well. This can produce infinite energy but technology has not been able to harness this power. Nuclear fission plants is not renewable, but is a fairly air pollutant free way to gain energy. In this process, atoms are split apart to produce energy; however, nuclear wastes may remain for lifetimes.

Governmental and consumer support is still highly needed in order to harness these sources.
Below is a pie chart of renewable resources and it shows how large a portion of renewable energy use that they represent. Again, this is just how much they are of renewable energy not energy