The Human Development Index


Measures of Development


Big Mac Index and Purchasing Power Parity
A method of measuring the relative purchasing power of different countries' currencies over the same types of goods and services. Because goods and services may cost more in one country than in another, PPP allows us to make more accurate comparisons of standards of living across countries.

PPP estimates use price comparisons of comparable items
Take a fixed basket of goods. Suppose it costs $100 in the US and 1000 rupees in India ; this indicates that one dollar provides exactly the same purchasing power as 10 rupees. The purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rate is defined as US$1=10. In the Big Mac Index, the "basket" in question is considered to be a single Big Mac burger as sold by the McDonald's fast food restaurant chain.

Purchasing Power Parity: To compare economic statistics across countries, the data must first be converted into a common currency. Unlike conventional exchange rates, PPP rates of exchange allow this conversion to take account of price differences between countries. In this measure, one dollar has the same purchasing power over a local or domestic GDP that the US dollar has over US GDP. This rate allows a standard comparison of real price levels between countries otherwise normal exchange rates may over or undervalue purchasing power

Alternate: The principle that equivalent assets sell for the same price. Purchasing power parity is a measurement of a currency's value based on the buying power within its own domestic economy.


Big Mac Index
· This index, like many others, gives a way of comparing countries.
· By including work time, we know how long it takes someone to work to earn a Big Mac and we can use this as a point of comparison.
· If it takes you ten hours to work to earn a Big Mac in another country then you are better off staying here
· It also lets us know how far purchasing power of another currency really goes.

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used as an index to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdeveloped (low development) countries. The statistic is composed from statistics for Life Expectancy, Education, and GDP

OLD METHODOLOGY The HDI combines three dimensions:
* Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity
* Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting).
*Standard of living, as measured by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.


NEW METHODOLOGY
Starting with the 2010 report the HDI combines three dimensions:
* A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
* Access to knowledge: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
* A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)




The Democracy Index is an index compiled by The Economist examining the state of democracy in 167 countries, attempting to quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy which focused on five general categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation and political culture. According to Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index 2008 Sweden scored a total of 9.88 on a scale from zero to ten, which was the highest result, while North Korea scored the lowest with 0.86.1 The countries are categorized into "Full Democracies", "Flawed Democracies", "Hybrid Regimes" (all considered democracies), and "Authoritarian Regimes" (considered dictatorial).


GDP The gross domestic product (GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI) is a basic measure of a country's overall economic output. It is the market value of all final goods and services made within the borders of a country in a year.
GDP per capita – per person




GDI The Gender-related Development Index (GDI) is an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN). It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report. It aims to show the inequalities between men and women in the following areas: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Like the HDI but for women by comparison to men.

GEM -The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is a measure of inequalities between men's and women's opportunities in a country. It combines inequalities in three areas: political participation and decision making, economic participation and decision making, and power over economic resources. Political and corporate empowerment are measured and as well as income comparisons to men.

-Both GDI and GEM scores are highest in MDCs. North America, Northern Europe and Oceania (Australia) score the highest. Parts of Asia and Africa score the lowest with Africa having some of the worst countries in the world based off of these measures.


Life Expectancy -how long you can expect to live.

Infant Mortality Rate number of children that die before their first birthday
These would be good indicators of the overall health of the people

GNI Gross National Income comprises the total value produced within a country (i.e. its gross domestic product), together with its income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries. Formerly GNP

Alternate Definition: The total value of goods and services produced within one nation's economy in a year. This includes goods and services produced both domestically and abroad.


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the movement of capital across national frontiers in a manner that grants the investor control over the acquired asset. Firms that use FDI are known as multinational enterprises. Production in the foreign country is largely financed by the multinational. Second definition- refers to long term participation by country A into country B. It usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and "know-how"



Job Sectors

· Primary sector of the economy: Involves the extraction and production of raw materials, such as corn, coal, wood and iron. (A coal miner and a fisherman would be workers in the primary sector.)

· Secondary sector of the economy: Involves the transformation of raw or intermediate materials into goods e.g. manufacturing steel into cars, or textiles into clothing. (A builder and a dressmaker would be workers in the secondary sector).

· Tertiary sector of the economy: Involves the provision of services to consumers and businesses, such as baby-sitting, cinema and banking. (A shopkeeper and an accountant would be workers in the tertiary sector.)

First phase: Traditional civilizations
Workforce quotas:
Primary sector: 70%
Secondary sector: 20%
Tertiary sector: 10%
This phase represents a society which is scientifically not yet very developed, with a negligible use of machinery. The state of development corresponds to that of European countries in the early Middle Ages, or that of a modern-day developing country.

Second phase: Transitional period
Workforce quotas:
Primary sector: 20%
Secondary sector: 50%
Tertiary sector: 30%
More machinery is deployed in the primary sector, which reduces the number of workers needed. As a result the demand for machinery production in the second sector increases. The transitional phase begins with an event which can be identified with industrialization: far-reaching mechanization (and therefore automation) of manufacture, such as the use of conveyor belts.
-more likely to start having a multiplier effect here with your industries

Third phase: Tertiary civilization
Workforce quotas:
Primary sector: 10%
Secondary sector: 20%
Tertiary sector: 70%
The primary and secondary sectors are increasingly dominated by automation, and the demand for workforce numbers falls in these sectors. It is replaced by the growing demands of the tertiary sector. The situation now corresponds to modern-day industrial societies and the society of the future, the service or post-industrial society. Today the tertiary sector has grown to such an enormous size that it is sometimes further divided into an information-based quaternary sector, and even a quinary sector based on non-profit



HDI Regional Breakdown

NORTH AMERICA
-America is big with food production / least percentage of income on food
-Canada universal access to health care
-America has an abundance of low cost consumer goods
-Does not include Mexico
-USA GDP per capita / literacy / little bit less for lifespan and school years (recession and health care)
-Historically these countries have had people of predominantly one religious background

EUROPE
-Deindustrial
-Universal health care
-EU lowered economic barriers
-access to free education even at the college level
-regions within Europe
NORTHWEST -Germany has a very strong economy Doing well:
Scandanavia, England, Germany, France Not well: Ireland, Iceland
(victims of the current recession)
SOUTH -PIIGS Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain These are
more likely to need a bailout during the current recession and have
higher unemployment and lower GDPs. Many of these countries
are growing slowly. Some of the weakest economies in the EU.
Hit hard by the current recession.
EAST -Countries that came out of communism and this took time
to transition to free market economies. During that time their
HDI scores declined. Their economies were centrally planned.
Russia experienced high unemployment, growth of organized
crime, and other issues which lowered its HDI. Some E. Europe
countries are now joining the EU and Russia has recently become
one of the largest oil exporters. This may increase the HDI but
the current recession is an issue
-importing food
-location of industries (Russia had them nearer China than the West)
-pollution
-Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovenia
-neglected consumer products which hurt the transition to market economies


JAPAN
-Former colony
-Nation-state
-Unfavorable ratio of people to resources
-Government had active role in developing manufacturing early on
-Specializes in high quality, high-value products such as electronics and automobiles
-Skilled workforce and they spend twice as much as US on research

OCEANIA
-Peripheral location
-Low population
-Australia leads the way
-Aus and NZ are increasingly connected to Asian economies instead of England

LATIN AMERICA
-Often coastal populations
-Infrstructure is often coastal as a result of colonialism
-Note uneven development in rural to urban environment
-Plantations in the interior / secondary industries in the cities on the coast
-NAFTA and Mexico, many Latin American countries have the economies linked to US
-Increase in education in last 40 years in many countries along with lower TFRs
-Developing secondary industries in Mexico and Brazil
-Brazil is now a major food exporter
-Recent recession has hit Latin America hard
-Mexico is dealing with a new round of violence from drug gangs



EAST ASIA
-Increasingly driven by China
-Communism drove the economy (central planning) until the 1980s - 1990s
-Much of its development has been to an increase in manufacturing
-Containorization has helped this
-Recently farmers have been allowed to have long term leases on their land
-SEZs have lead to private sector growth
-China partners with Wal Mart to make cheap goods
-Recession can hurt but they are still growing economically
-Hurting their economic development would be low wages for their jobs (which also hurts the wages in other LDCs), weaknesses in corporate jobs, primitive banking and weak legal protections
-China makes 2/3rds of the world's DVD players, microwaves, photocopiers, and shoes (note that these are relatively low-weight goods)
-Hurting their health would be the increasing levels of pollution
-Gets a lot of FDI from TNCs / MNCs

SOUTHWEST ASIA
-Desert makes up a large part of this region
-Has large oil reserves - mainly around the Persian Gulf
-Some states have issues with the GEM and GDI measures
-Some longstanding conflicts keep the HDI low for some countries/territories (Palestine, Afghanistan)
-Tribalism is an issue in Afghanistan, Libya, and Pakistan

SOUTHEAST ASIA
-Indonesia is the most populous here
-Also includes Vietnam, Philippines and Thailand
-Indonesia is a former Dutch colony, most people are concentrated on Java (island)
-Exports many raw materials (rice, palm oil, coconut oil, and rubber)
-Now the area has become a major exporter of clothing
-Thailand has become the region's center for manufactured goods

SOUTH ASIA
-India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan
-Unfavorable ratio of resources to people (btw Japan is the worst)
-High population density
-Green Revolution had particularly strong effect in helping population here
-NIR is high (perhaps second highest to Sub-Saharan? Africa)
-Monsoon weather
-India is the world's fourth largest economy
-Much of India's development has been through the service industry and like China growth has been rapid but uneven





AFRICA
-Least favorable environment for development
-Political instability
-Highest percentage of people living in poverty
-Demographic trap
-Landlocked states
-Low levels of education
-Child labor
-Multi-National states / Tribalism
-Concentrated in primary sector jobs / subsistence farmers / low multiplier effect
-Infrastructure and economy was developed by Europeans