Sector model- a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges radiating out from the central business district (CBD) and centered on major transportation lines.

• Also known as the Hoyt Model. Developed in 1939 by land economist Homer Hoyt.
• He said that a city develops in a series of sectors, not rings.
• Different areas attract different activities by chance or by environmental factors.
• As the city grows, activities within it grow outward in a wedge shape from the CBD.

CBD- central business district, the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered. It is also called the central activities district. In North America, it is called “downtown.” In Chicago, it would be the area closest to the lake, most notably Michigan Avenue.


• Industry follows rivers, canals, railroads, or roads
• Lower class workers work here. Paid little, bad working conditions.
• Produces goods or other domestic products for city

Low Class Residential
• Low income housing
• Near railroads that feed factories or
• Inhabitants tend to work in factories
• Live near industry to reduce transportation costs
• Pollution or poor environmental conditions due to industry (traffic, noise and pollution make it cheap)

Middle Class Residential
• More desirable area because it is further from industry and pollution
• Access to transportation lines for working people who work in the CBD, making transport easier
• Largest residential area

High Class Residential
• Housing on outermost edge
• Furthest away from industry
• Quiet, clean, less traffic
• Corridor or spine extending from CBD to edge has best housing.

Where it does and doesn’t apply (some weaknesses)
• Applies well to Chicago
• Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’s model
• Theory based on 20th century and does not take into account cars which make commerce easier
• With cars, people can live anywhere and further from the city and still travel to the CBD using their car. Not only do high-class residents have cars, but also middle and lower class people may have cars.