It was decided that British India be partitioned into two nation-states after World War II, one that was Muslim and one that was Hindu. It was intended that the partition be clean and the split was peaceful. However, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines. Nearly 50 percent of the Muslim population of British India remained in India. Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims resulted in between 500,000 to 1 million casualties. Pakistan was geopolitically divided into two sections, East and West Pakistan.

There were four wars fought between India and Pakistan, one in 1947, one in 1965, another in 1971, and another in 1999. The third war, fought in 1971, created Bangladesh. The war was also known as The Bangladesh Liberation War. The war was a civil war in Pakistan, between East Pakistan and West Pakistan. West Pakistan launched a military operation in East Pakistan against Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, and armed personnel who were demanding independence from Pakistan. Members of the East Bengal Regiment, East Pakistan Rifles, East Pakistan police and other Bengali military and paramilitary forces, and armed civilians revolted to form guerilla groups and forces to fight against the army of West Pakistan. On December 3, 1971, West Pakistan launched a pre-emptive attack on the western border of India, which marked the start of the Indo-Pakistani? War of 1971. Finally, on December 16, 1971, the allied forces of the Indian army and the Bangladesh Liberation Army decisively defeated the West Pakistani forces.

The reason behind the war and the conflict was mostly due to conflicting views over who would have more political power in Pakistan. Although East Pakistan accounted for a majority of the country's population, political power remained firmly in the hands of West Pakistanis, specifically the Punjabis. Since a straightforward system of representation based on population would have concentrated political power in East Pakistan, the West Pakistani establishment came up with the “One Unit” scheme, where all of West Pakistan was considered one province. This was solely to counterbalance the East wing's votes. Ironically, after the East broke away to form Bangladesh, the Punjab province insisted that politics in West Pakistan now be decided on the basis of a straightforward vote, since Punjabis were more numerous than the other groups, such as Sindhis, Pashtuns, or Balochs.

Between 26 November 2008 and 29 November 2008 there were a series of coordinated terrorist across Mumbai, India's financial capital and largest city. These attacks by 10 terrorists killed about 160 people. The partition of India left India and Pakistan devastated. Both countries cannot come to a consensus over many issues, like the possession of Kashmir, and there are still many religious attacks against each country. The same issues of the differences between Muslims and Hindus exist and seem to be almost impossible to resolve.