Multiple-Nuclei? Model

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* Multiple-Nuclei? model is a model of urban land use in which a city grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district. Each point acts as a growth center from a particular kind of land use, such as industry, retail, or high-quality housing. As these expand, they merge to form a single urban area. The CBD is not the only generator of change.
* Some centers or nodes include:
o ports,
o universities,
o airports,
o parks,
o neighborhood business centers.

This model, unlike others, takes into account the varied factors of decentralization in the structure of the North American city.

The multiple-nuclei theory was formed based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership. This increase of movement allows for the specialization of regional centers (eg. heavy industry, business park). A term for the specialization of regional centers would a node. There is no clear CBD in this type of model.

The distant decay theory is still applicable to this model. Land value and population density decline with distance from the central places.

Difference among Concentric, Sector and Multiple nuclei models

1. monocentric – concentric, sector model; polycentric – multiple nuclei
2. multiple nuclei more complex in term of land use zones, e.g. industrial suburbs
3. multiple nuclei allows the suburbanization, transport development, outward growth of city
4. multiple nuclei model gives the idea of land use pattern of a city only

Criticisms about the Multiple nuclei model

1) Negligence of height of buildings.

2) Non-existence of abrupt divisions between zones.

3) Each zone displays a significant degree of internal heterogeneity and not homogeneity.

4) Unawareness of inertia forces.

5) No consideration of influence of physical relief and government policy.

6) The concepts may not be totally applicable to oriental cities with different cultural, economic and political backgrounds.